The flags that were actually produced by the Richmond Clothing Depot used the 1.5:1 ratio adopted for the Confederate navy's battle ensign, rather than the official 2:1 ratio. The third national flag of the Confederate States of America. The battle flag of Gen. Polks Corps saw action from Shiloh through the final surrender of the Army of Tennessee. Just under half of these flags (18) bore eleven stars, of which 8 bore a center star with the other ten stars surrounding it. Share. Quick View. Flag flown by Confederate Missouri regiments during the Vicksburg campaign. -"Letter from Richmond" by the Richmond correspondent of the, Journal of the Confederate Congress, Volume 6, p.477, John D. Wright, The Language of the Civil War, p.284, Healy, Donald T.; Orenski, Peter J. Many soldiers wrote home about the ceremony and the impression the flag had upon them, the "fighting colors" boosting morale after the confusion at the Battle of First Manassas. Inside the canton are seven to thirteen white five-pointed stars of equal size, arranged in a circle and pointing outward. The "Stars and Bars" The First Confederate National Flag (1861 - 1863) The Confederate Battle Flag (1861-1865) VII. These animals can sniff it out. Hundreds of proposed national flag designs were submitted to the Confederate Congress during competitions to find a First National flag (FebruaryMay 1861) and Second National flag (April 1862; April 1863). As might be expected 2 of the flags from Virginia (the eighth state to join the Confederacy) bear seven stars around a larger center star, and 2 of the flags from North Carolina (the tenth Confederate state) bear ten stars. Can we bring a species back from the brink?, Video Story, Copyright 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, Copyright 2015-2023 National Geographic Partners, LLC. The flag that Miles had favored when he was chairman of the "Committee on the Flag and Seal" eventually became the battle flag and, ultimately, the Confederacy's most popular flag.  The original version of the flag featured a circle of seven white stars in the navy-blue canton, representing the seven states of the South that originally composed the Confederacy: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. One Congressman even mocked it as looking "like a pair of Suspenders". What if we could clean them out? How a zoo break-in changed the life of an owl called Flaco, Naked mole rats are fertile until they die, study finds. Please be respectful of copyright. The first official use of the "Stainless Banner" was to drape the coffin of General Thomas J. But it didnt look like that from a distanceand in the thick of battle, it was hard to tell the two apart. They objected to the Democratic Partys adoption of a pro-civil rights platform and were dismayed when hundreds of thousands of Black Americans registered to vote in Democratic primaries after the Supreme Court declared all-white primaries unconstitutional. Kentucky), and even from Union states (such as New York). The blue flag with the circle of white told the Yankees that they facing the troops of Gen. Wm. Van Dorn was relieved of command after the Battle of Corinth in 1862. Miles described his rejected national flag design to Beauregard. STARS AND BARS Images of the first Confederate national flag with more than 13 stars. READ MORE  The "Stars and Bars" was also criticized on ideological grounds for its resemblance to the U.S. flag. The . The ensign of the Confederate States Revenue Service, designed by Dr. H. P. Capers of South Carolina on April 10, 1861. With the war over, the South entered Reconstruction, a period during which the now reunified United States ended slavery and gave Black Americans citizenship and voting rights. "Neither Arkansas nor Missouri enacted legislation to adopt an official State flag" (Cannon 2005, p. 48). The "Stars and Bars" caused much confusion on the battlefield because of its similarity to the United States flag, the "Stars and Stripes." The Confederate Army never had an official battle flag. He did not share in the nostalgia for the Union that many of his fellows Southerners felt, believing that the South's flag should be completely different from that of the North. Heres why each season begins twice. Though it hassome Black supporters, it remains shorthand for a defiant South and all that implies. The design of the Stars and Bars varied over the following two years. This caused major problems at the July 1861 Battle of First Manassas and during other skirmishes as some troops mistakenly fired on their own comrades. Military officers also voiced complaints about the flag being too white, for various reasons, such as the danger of being mistaken for a flag of truce, especially on naval ships where it was too easily soiled. The winner of the competition was Nicola Marschall's "Stars and Bars" flag. Notable examples include the flag that adorned the coffin of Confederate president Jefferson Davis, that of the Washington Artillery, famed artillery unit of New Orleans, the First Florida Infantry which saw action along side many Louisiana units at Shiloh, and the Sixth Louisiana (Orleans Rifles) embroidered with the inscription Let Us Alone, Trust In God. There is an active flag restoration program and donors may contribute funds to be used toward the restoration of any flag. . The Stars and Bars served as the first national flag of the Confederate States of America from 4 Mar. STARS AND BARS Images of 13 Star versions of the first Confederate national flag. and the later Sons of Confederate Veterans, (S.C.V. The Confederacy's first official national flag, often called the Stars and Bars, flew from March 4, 1861, to May 1, 1863. March 4, 1861 The first national flag of the Confederate States of America (the "Stars and Bars") is adopted. How did this mountain lion reach an uninhabited island? Many different designs were proposed during the solicitation for a second Confederate national flag, nearly all based on the Battle Flag. The second national flag was later adapted as a naval ensign, using a shorter 2:3 aspect ratio than the 1:2 ratio adopted by the Confederate Congress for the national flag. Unit abbreviations on two of the surviving flags were applied with separately cut and applied red cotton letters. In 1989 friends of Memorial Hall paid for the conservation of a Confederate Battle Flag given to the museum by Rene Beauregard, son of General PGT Beauregard. Miles' flag lost out to the "Stars and Bars". Although this design was never a national flag, it is the most commonly recognized symbol of the Confederacy. Photograph courtesy the Library of Congress, Photograph by Flip Schulke, CORBIS/Corbis/Getty, Photograph by Kris Graves, National Geographic. When the American Civil War broke out, the "Stars and Bars" confused the battlefield at the First Battle of Bull Run because of its similarity to the U.S. (or Union) flag, especially when it was hanging limp on its flagstaff. Introduction: National Flags of the Confederacy . Many of the proposed designs paid homage to the Stars and Stripes, due to a nostalgia in early 1861 that many of the new Confederate citizens felt towards the Union. The Confederate States of America used three national flags during the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865, known as the "Stars and Bars" (1861-1863), the "Stainless Banner" (1863-65), and the "Blood-Stained Banner" (1865). Reviews on Bars With Darts in Brea, CA - Shady Nook, Squire's, The Blue Door Bar, Juke Joint Bar, The Bruery, A&C Billiards and Barstools, Brian's Original Sports Bar, Group Therapy Pub, Shotz Bar & Kitchen, Bigs Flag officially used: September 1860 Summer, 1861, George P. Gilliss flag, also known as the Biderman Flag, the only Confederate flag captured in California (Sacramento). The Dixiecrat-era fad flag stoked its sale on everything from T-shirts to mugs and bumper stickers. As the Confederacy grew, so did the numbers of white stars on the ensign's dark blue canton: seven-, nine-, eleven-, and thirteen-star groupings were typical. This was replaced again in 2003 with a flag resembling the Stars and Bars. CONFEDERATE 1ST NATIONAL UNIT FLAGS IN SOUTH CAROLINA AND GEORGIA. Many restored flags are always on display. In 1816, the command operated in Missouri and Arkansas but was transferred to Northern Mississippi. Beauregard gave a speech encouraging the soldiers to treat the new flag with honor and that it must never be surrendered. In the center of the union a circle of white stars corresponding in number with the States in the Confederacy. The flags were known as the "Stars and Bars&qu. Heritage or no, the Confederate flag retains its associations with centuries of racial injustice. But as secession got underway, the Confederate States of America. However, Miles' flag was not well received by the rest of the Congress. Congress did not adopted a formal Act codifying this flag, but it is described in the Report of the Committee on Flag and Seal, in the following language: The flag of the Confederate States of America shall consist of a red field with a white space extending horizontally through the center, and equal in width to one-third the width of the flag. Similarly the patriotic ladies of the South who prepared most of the company and regimental flags for the military units raised in the Southern states chose whatever proportions and sizes seemed aesthetic. / Forwarded to Montgomery, Ala. Feb 12, 1861, / Adopted by the Provisional Congress March 4, 1861". Three of the flags from Alabama units bore a circle of seven stars. Many Confederates disliked the Stars and Bars, seeing it as symbolic of a centralized federal power against which the Confederate states claimed to be seceding. Isnt a battle flag supposed to be square? It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Stars and Bars, the name of the first national Confederate flag. Only 13 flags, however, had been delivered to Major J.B. McClelland at Richmond by the battle of 1st Manassas (Bull Run), and none of these may have been distributed to the Army at Centreville before the battle. Hundreds of designs were submitted and on May 4, 1861, the First National Flag was adopted (there would eventually be two others). For use of Confederate symbols in modern society and popular culture, see, Flags of the Confederate States of America. STARS AND BARS Images of 8, 9 and 10 Star versions of the first Confederate national flag. Of 23 identified 1st national flags from Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina, most (16) bear eleven stars; and of these, 7 are arranged in a circle of eleven, while 5 have ten stars surrounding a center star. A Virginia Department of Historic Resources marker declaring Fairfax, Virginia, as the birthplace of the Confederate battle flag was dedicated on April 12, 2008, near the intersection of Main and Oak Streets, in Fairfax, Virginia. Save up to 30% when you upgrade to an image pack. What is wind chill, and how does it affect your body? Adopted in February 1865, as a result from complaints made by the Confederate Navy that he predominate white color of the second national flag caused it be mistaken for a flag of surrender. In such cases, one of the company flags would be chosen to serve as the regimental flag. Bar, Cocktails, $ $$ Facebook.  A YouGov poll in 2020 of more than 34,000 Americans reported that 41% viewed the flag as representing racism, and 34% viewed it as symbolizing southern heritage. William Miles delivered a speech supporting the simple white design that was eventually approved.  Also, Confederate regiments carried many other flags, which added to the possibility of confusion. Ships chandlers, Henry Vaughan in Mobile, Alabama and Hugh Vincent in Charleston, South Carolina, accepted orders to manufacture Confederate 1st national flags of these sizes. The red space above and below to be the same width as the white. , The First Confederate Navy Jack, 18611863, The First Confederate Navy Ensign, 18611863, The Second Confederate Navy Jack, 18631865, The Second Confederate Navy Ensign, 18631865, The Second Navy Ensign of the ironclad CSS Atlanta, The 9-star First Naval Ensign of the paddle steamer CSS Curlew, The 11-star Ensign of the Confederate Privateer Jefferson Davis, A 12-star First Confederate Navy Ensign of the gunboat CSS Ellis, 18611862, The Command flag of Captain William F. Lynch, flown as ensign of his flagship, CSS Seabird, 1862, Pennant of Admiral Franklin Buchanan, CSSTennessee, at Battle of Mobile Bay, August 5, 1864, Digital recreation of Admiral Buchanan's pennant, Admiral's Rank flag of Franklin Buchanan, flown from CSS Virginia during the first day of the Battle of Hampton Roads and also flown from the CSS Tennessee during the Battle of Mobile Bay, Confederate naval flag, captured when General William Sherman took Savannah, Georgia, 1864, The first national flag, also known as the Stars and Bars (see above), served from 1861 to 1863 as the Confederate Navy's first battle ensign. The number remained 11 through the summer, but increased when Missouri and Kentucky were admitted to the CSA by Acts of Congress approved 28 November 1861 and 10 December 1861, respectively. On this Wikipedia the language links are at the top of the page across from the article title. , Though never having historically represented the Confederate States of America as a country, nor having been officially recognized as one of its national flags, the Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia and its variants are now flag types commonly referred to as the Confederate Flag. The colors red, white and blue were symbolic of France, red and gold colors of Spain and 13 stripes of the United States. Soon after, the first Confederate Battle Flag was also flown. The white stars on the blue field represent the original Confederate States of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas. Across the South, Citizens Councils and the Ku Klux Klanflew the battle flag as they intimidated Black citizens. The Congress inspected two other finalist designs on March 4: One was a "Blue ring or circle on a field of red", while the other consisted of alternating red and blue stripes with a blue canton containing stars. President Jefferson Davis' inauguration took place under the 1861 state flag of Alabama, and the celebratory parade was led by a unit carrying the 1861 state flag of Georgia. ", The flag is also known as the Stainless Banner, and the matter of the person behind its design remains a point of contention. These skeletons may have the answer, Scientists are making advancements in birth controlfor men, Blood cleaning? For many on the receiving end of hundreds of years of racism, the Confederate battle flag embodies everything from hatred to personal intimidationa far cry from the sanitized Lost Cause narrative that helped fuel its rise. In July 1944, one month after the Allies stormed the beaches of Normandy, the 79th Infantry Division drove Nazi troops out of the French town La Haye-du-Puits. J. Hardee. June 14, 2020. "Stonewall" Jackson as it lay in state in the Virginia capitol, May 12, 1863. Miles' flag and all the flag designs up to that point were rectangular ("oblong") in shape. Find the perfect the stars and bars flag stock photo, image, vector, illustration or 360 image. At a distance, the two national flags were hard to tell apart. The chairman was William Porcher Miles, who was also the Representative of South Carolina in the Confederate House of Representatives. Those inspired by the Stars and Stripes were discounted almost immediately by the Committee due to mirroring the Union's flag too closely. It was never the official flag of the Confederacy. Interestingly, a significant number of Tennessee company and regimental 1st national flags were made of silk and were of very large size, often exceeding 8 feet on their flys. They resemble too closely the dishonored 'Flag of Yankee Doodle' we imagine that the 'Battle Flag' will become the Southern Flag by popular acclaim." Although less well known than the "Confederate Battle Flags",the Stars and Bars was used as the official flag of the Confederacy from March 1861 to May of 1863. "Southern Confederacy" (Atlanta, Georgia), 5 Feb 1865, pg 2. Our acid dye process saturates right through the flag producing deep and vivid colors that never crack or peel. The garrison flag of the Confederate forces Generals Beauregard and Johnston and Quartermaster General Cabell approved the 12-star Confederate Battle Flag's design at the Ratcliffe home, which served briefly as Beauregard's headquarters, near Fairfax Court House in September 1861. . The stars are usually arranged in a circle and number seven or more. Efforts to memorialize the Confederate dead also began as soon as the war ended, but they ballooned as white Southerners reclaimed their power after Reconstruction.  It is also known as the rebel flag, Dixie flag, and Southern cross. President Jefferson Davis arrived by train at Fairfax Station soon after and was shown the design for the new battle flag at the Ratcliffe House. It resembles the Yankee flag, and that is enough to make it unutterably detestable." 1st National Confederate Flag 7 Star Stars and Bars Confederate Cotton Flag 5 x 8 ft. $ 149.95. When rebels fired on Fort Sumter in April 1861, they flew a blue banner with a single white star called the Bonnie Blue Flag. This is the First National Flag of the Confederacy, the Stars and Bars. Denounced as a hate symbol, the Confederate flag remains popular among white supremacists and Southerners who claim it as their heritage.  A July 2021 Politico-Morning Consult poll of 1,996 registered voters reported that 47% viewed it as a symbol of Southern pride while 36% viewed it as a symbol of racism. While others were wildly different, many of which were very complex and extravagant, these were largely discounted due to the being too complicated and expensive to produce. "A surviving Georgia flag in the collection of the, Bonner, Robert E., "Flag Culture and the Consolidation of Confederate Nationalism. It existed in a variety of dimensions and sizes, despite the CSN's detailed naval regulations. A National Geographic team has made the first ascent of the remote Mount Michael, looking for a lava lake in the volcanos crater. Taking this into account, Miles changed his flag, removing the palmetto and crescent, and substituting a heraldic saltire ("X") for the upright cross. " Confederate Congressman Peter W. Gray proposed the amendment that gave the flag its white field. It was sometimes called "Beauregard's flag" or "the Virginia battle flag". Realizing that they quickly needed a national banner to represent their sovereignty, the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States set up the Committee on Flag and Seal. Isnt the Rectangular battle flag really the Navy Jack? Amid the smoke and general chaos of battle, it was hard to distinguish the Confederate national flag, the "Stars and Bars," from the U. S. national flag, the "Stars and Stripes." Confederate Congressman William Porcher Miles suggested that the army have a distinct battle flag. Their cantons bore eleven white, 5-pointed stars arranged in a circle. Its a story of rebellion, racism, and disagreement over the true history of the Civil Warand as the controversy over its use during the Capitol riots shows, its divisive even 160 years after it was designed. Marschall also designed the Confederate army uniform. A young . Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. Rogers lobbied successfully to have this alteration introduced in the Confederate Senate. The version produced even today for the Stars and Bars, or First National Confederate, features the original seven star pattern in the blue canton. During the Civil War, some of the units from Louisiana and Texas adopted the Bonnie Blue flag as their official banner of the Confederacy. The flags were initially prepared bore seven stars in a circle, but at least one 11 star example in the storm size is known with Vaughans markings.  In January 1862, George William Bagby, writing for the Southern Literary Messenger, wrote that many Confederates disliked the flag. The similarity between the stars and bars and the stars and strips caused many cases of mistaken identity during the first battle of Manassas or Bull Run in July of 1861. In the early summer of 1861, the army was renamed the Army of Northern Virginia (ANV) commanded by Gen. R.E. First flag with 7 stars(March 4 May 18, 1861), Flag with 11 stars(July 2 November 28, 1861), Last flag with 13 stars(November 28, 1861 May 1, 1863), The Confederacy's first official national flag, often called the Stars and Bars, flew from March 4, 1861, to May 1, 1863. The results were mixed. Stock photos, 360 images, vectors and videos. Hundreds of examples were submitted from across the Confederate States and from states that were not yet part of Confederacy (e.g. A modification of that design was adopted on March 4, 1865, about a month before the end of the Read More symbolism of sovereignty Most famously, the "Bonnie Blue Flag" was used as an unofficial flag during the early months of 1861. It is historically also known as Memorial Hall. The Atlantic. The official version was to have the stars in a circle, with the number corresponding to the States actually admitted to the Confederacy. The first Confederate national flag bore 7 stars representing the first seven states to secede from the U.S. and band together as the Confederate States of America: South Carolina, Mississippi . The very first national flag of the Confederacy was designed by Prussian artist Nicola Marschall in Marion, Alabama. To this end, he proposed his own flag design featuring a blue saltire on white Fimbriation with a field of red. Thus, there would have been 7 stars from 4 March 1861 until 7 May 1861, when Virginia became the 8th Confederate State by Act of Congress. Robed Ku Klux Klan members watch Black demonstrators march through Okolona, Mississippi, in 1978. In addition to the 112 1st national flags from states east of the Mississippi, a number of Confederate 1st national flags from the trans-Mississippi region have also been surveyed. The First National Flag -- Stars and Bars May 4, 1861 - May 1, 1863 The Confederate States of America solicited designs for a national flag early in 1861. Some of the homages were outright mimicry, while others were less obviously inspired by the Stars and Stripes, yet were still intended to pay homage to that flag. This flag proposal was the first variant submitted by William T. Riddle of Eutaw, Alabama. So Gen. Pierre G. T. Beauregard decided that he needed to design a different national flag so that it would . By 1863, it had become well-known and popular among those living in the Confederacy. This bunting was placed in the hands of Richmond military goods dealer, George Ruskell. ", "Gen. Beauregard suggested the flag just adopted, or else a field of blue in place of the white." Over the course of the flag's use by the CSA, additional stars were added to the canton, eventually bringing the total number to thirteen-a reflection of the Confederacy's claims of having admitted the border states of Kentucky and Missouri, where slavery was still widely practiced. The Confederacy adopted a total of three national flags before its collapse in 1865. William Porcher Miles, however, was not really happy with any of the proposals. "Everybody wants a new Confederate flag," Bagby wrote. Not according to biology or history. Since the end of the Civil War, private and official use of the Confederate flags, particularly the battle flag, has continued amid philosophical, political, cultural, and racial controversy in the United States.